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Prognostic Markers and Detection Approaches of Bladder Cancer

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Nan Zhang, Fuhan Zhang, Mengran Shi, Zhao Yang, Chong Li

Abstract


Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men worldwide. Numerous treatments of BC are available, but it is noteworthy that BC patients have heterogeneous responses to these treatments. Therefore, the prognostic markers, which are associated with clinical outcomes, are vital for formulating BC treatment plan. This review provides an overview of prognostic markers and their importance in early diagnosis and recurrence of BC. Apart from that, this review discusses the application of prognostic markers and their related population studies. A deeper understanding of these prognostic markers and their prognostic value would aid in designing treatment strategies, predicting response to treatment, and managing the clinical care for BC in future.


Keywords


Bladder cancer, Prognostic markers, Prognostic value

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/c+.v2i1.273

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