2019

Vol 1, No.3 CANCER+ (Published)

Table of Contents

Review Articles

by Zhao Yang, Kun Zhang, Tianying Xing, Suhang Bai, Zongyi Shen, Luyao Wang, Lingzhi Wang, Zichen Zhang, Chong Li, Wei Zhang
133 Views, 69 PDF Downloads

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas12a (CRISPR-Cas12a) system is a new type of CRISPR-Cas system. As a unitary effector protein in this system, Cas12a recognizes 5’-TTTN-3’ protospacer-adjacent motif and exhibits cleavage activity of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), supplementing the toolbox of CRISPR system. Compared to CRISPR-Cas9 system, CRISPR-Cas12a system has the advantage of high specificity, which is a promising tool for genetic manipulation in the basic cancer research and clinical cancer therapy. To date, three Cas12a proteins including Acidaminococcus sp. Cas12a (AsCas12a), Francisella novicida Cas12a (FnCas12a), and Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cas12a (LpCas12a) have been applied in transcriptional regulation or genome editing through CRISPR RNAs complementary to target DNA or RNA in cancer cells or immune cells. This review summarizes the latest applications of CRISPR-Cas12a system in cancer research and its structural basis.

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Review Articles

by Xuanhe Chen, Xue Tan, Fangjing Fan, Chong Li
111 Views, 33 PDF Downloads

Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies associated with high morbidity, high mortality, as well as inconvenient post-operative recurrence. Typical symptoms of bladder cancer include hematuria, frequent urination, nocturia, and dysuria. Most of the primary bladder tumors are non-muscle invasive, which do not grow in muscularis propria, and are often treated with surgery. Muscle-invasive tumors are more common in recurrent diseases, which have higher risk of metastasis. In addition, the treatments of these tumors have more serious side effects such as radical cystectomy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The mechanisms of pathogenesis and metabolisms of bladder cancer are yet unclear. However, several genetic mutations and influences from external environment have been proven to be the risk factors for bladder cancer. Along with the developments in researches, the understanding about bladder cancer formation and treatment has been improved over the years. Further studies on medical detection through new technologies are beneficial to the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. This review aimed to provide a general view of some recent progresses of bladder cancer’s pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and developments on research methods.

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Review Articles

by Chong Li
85 Views, 39 PDF Downloads

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a systemic pre-operative treatment which can eliminate microscopic lesion of bladder cancer including metastatic lesion. It significantly improves 5-year survival rate of bladder cancer. For patients with non-organ-confined bladder cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radical cystectomy can be a better treatment option. This article covers the current status of bladder treatment and the rise of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, advantages and disadvantages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, prediction of efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the choices for neoadjuvant chemotherapy patient, improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and large-scale clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer.

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Research Articles

by Rongbo Xue, Haifeng Wang, Ning Li, Yinglong Huang, Yigang Zuo
52 Views, 47 PDF Downloads

The cases of primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the kidney are rarely known in the clinical setting, and our understanding on this cancer is limited. We recently found a case of primary SCNEC of the kidney in our clinic. The clinical manifestation from the process of diagnosis to the treatment of this case was described in this report, enabling further understanding of cancer.

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Commentaries

by Pingping Zhu
49 Views, 16 PDF Downloads
NA
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