2019

Vol 1, No.4 CANCER+ (Published)

Table of Contents

Research Articles

by Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan, Sundararaj Keerthiga, Sivakumar Duraikannu, Velu Periyannan
99 Views, 42 PDF Downloads

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women, and it has the highest mortality and morbidity worldwide. Breast cancer can be treated by hormone therapies, radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy, but it is often associated with multiple deleterious effects. In this present work, we explored the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of ferruginol in MCF-7 cells. The effects of ferruginol on the cell growth and viability of MCF-7 cells were determined by the MTT assay and apoptotic markers. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) status as well as the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the ferruginol-treated MCF-7 cells were examined. In addition, expression of inflammation-related proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined using Western blotting. Our findings showed that ferruginol activated the apoptosis in MCF-7 through a reduction of cell viability. Furthermore, ferruginol-treated MCF-7 cells also showed a decrease of MMP, an increase of ROS, TBARS, caspase-3 and caspase-9, as well as a reduction of antioxidant proteins. Ferruginol treatment is also downregulated the expression of inflammatory modulators such as TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB p65, and IL-6 in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, ferruginol inhibits the inflammation and activated apoptosis by modulating the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Therefore, ferruginol may serve as a potential curative agent for breast cancer.

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Research Articles

by Weina Wang, Chunlan Zhao, Yuemian Liang, Jinku Zhang
80 Views, 122 PDF Downloads

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (BACC) is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer. The present study aimed to determine the clinicopathological characteristics of BACC in order to determine markers for accurate diagnosis and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of clinicopathological characteristics was conducted in 28 cases of BACC and 30 cases of nonspecific invasive breast cancer which served as the controls. All BACC patients were female, aged from 42 to 63 years. No lymph node metastasis, as well as nerve and lymphovascular invasion, was found in the BACC group. Twenty BACC cases showed classical tubular or cribriform structure, while eight other cases showed tumors of solid variant with obvious atypical cells that were proliferating with frequent mitosis. Epithelial and myoepithelial markers such as cytokeratin 7, CD117, epidermal growth factor receptor, and P63 were expressed in BACC cases. MYB was expressed in 26 BACC cases. Local recurrence happened in two BACC cases who were tested positive for nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) during a 10 – 84-month follow-up. The expression of MYB and NUPR1 had a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study showed that BACC is associated with low invasive characteristics and relatively inert biological behavior on the account of the vast majority of BACC cases which were tested negative for NUPR1. The study also implied that NUPR1 is an indicator of poor prognosis of the tumor. Meanwhile, our study also corroborated the significance of MYB expression for its discriminatory role in BACC diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Therefore, these cases are generally not advocated for chemotherapy, but rather, they are expected to be treated with MYB-targeted therapy.

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Research Articles

by Ruizhe Hao, Yaming Ji, Jinku Zhang, Bingjuan Zhou
88 Views, 27 PDF Downloads

The present study aimed to evaluate the application of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid coupled with the screening of serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF) gene mutation in the detection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). From October 2016 to June 2019, 1244, liquid-based specimens originated from the patients diagnosed with PTC and benign lesions were collected from the Pathology Department of First Central Hospital of Baoding. BRAFV600E mutation was screened in all the liquid-based specimens using quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. Combined with the pathological results after surgery, the results of FNAC alone and FNAC combined with BRAFV600E screening results in PTC of different grades were compared and analyzed. Of the 1244 cases, there were 818 cases with definite cytological diagnosis and 426 cases with uncertain diagnoses. Combined with BRAFV600E screening, 36 out of 90 cases with atypical cells and 150 out of 223 suspected PTC were diagnosed as PTC. In conclusion, coupled with BRAFV600E mutation screening, the pre-operative detection rate of PTC can be increased in patients with atypical cells and suspected PTC which cannot be confirmed by pre-operative FNAC.

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Research Articles

by Zhengtai Li, Fusheng Li, Huixue Tang, Xiao Ge, Lida Xu, Changyuan Yu
947 Views, 46 PDF Downloads

The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), accounts for a large proportion of lung cancer cases. However, the mechanisms of LUSC and LUAD are very different, especially the pathogenesis of LUSC remains unclear. At present, the research on the targeted therapeutic sites of LUAD has approached maturity and these targets are of clinical significance. However, effective therapeutic targets have not been identified in LUSC, and at present, the same targeted therapeutic strategy for LUAD is also applied in LUSC treatment. We used the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas program to analyze the driver genes of LUAD and LUSC by two types of algorithms, namely, the OncodriveCLUST and Multi-Dendrix. Our results showed that the driver genes of LUAD concentrates in the KRAS/epidermal growth factor receptor/TP53 pathways, while LUSC involves multiple pathways, including PIK3CA, NFE2L2, and TP53. The results showed that different carcinogenic mechanisms exist between these two types of NSCLC, implying that different therapeutic targets for LUSC deserve our attention. At the same time, the results of survival analysis proved that the driver genes identified using the two algorithms in combination may be more valid and reliable than those identified by solely using MutsigCV.

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Reports

by Yu Huang, Haifeng Wang, Haihao Li, Jingyu Liu, Jiansong Wang
22 Views, 14 PDF Downloads

Primary bladder adenocarcinoma (PBA) is rarely seen in the clinical setting at present. Bladder adenocarcinoma has a special biological behavior, as well as high invasive and metastatic potential. In addition, it is very difficult to diagnose PBA at an early stage. Having similar clinical manifestation to urothelial carcinoma and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the bladder, the differential identification and diagnosis have become more complicated. A majority of adenocarcinoma is not sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy, and thus, the prognosis of PBA is generally poorer. Currently, surgery serves as the principal mode of treatment. In this case report, we had observed a PBA case for 1.5 years, and no recurrence and metastasis had been reported.

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