2019

Vol 1, No.1 CANCER+ (Published)

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Table of Contents

Review Articles

by Chong Li, Zhao Yang, Xu Zhang, Xing Kang, Yin Yang, Dechun Lei, Yunxia Zhao, Shaojie Ning
371 Views, 57 XML Downloads, 96 PDF Downloads

Bladder cancer is a complex disease and could be classified into non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive subtypes according to the distinct genetic background and clinical prognosis. It is necessary to find a non-invasive, economical and efficient method for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Translational medicine provides such an opportunity. Genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, bioinformatics and the like that aid in studying and exploring the mechanism of bladder cancer development, bladder cancer-related genes, signalling pathways, key molecules or targets can be clearly used for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Biomarkers have been developed as part of a new detection kit for the early screening, diagnosis and recurrence monitoring of bladder cancer through translational medicine. Additionally, targeted drugs and immunological preparations can be used for the treatment of bladder cancer and further improve its existing diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.


Review Articles

by Qi Liu, Jun Jian Ding, Fei Yi Liu, Zuo Zhen Jiang, Lin Li, Xin Bing Xiao, Jie Zhen Wang
180 Views, 82 PDF Downloads

The prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis has been widely used in the clinic for several decades. However, PSA has a low specificity for PCa diagnosis, thereby several gene, blood and urine-based biomarkers (such as sarcosine) underlying biology of PCa progression are being developed to improve the accuracy of PCa diagnosis. In the present review, we focus on novel PCa biomarkers, which are ptentially superior to PSA in PCa screening and facilitate clinical PCa diagonosis. The early PCa screening with reliable biomarkers is critical in reducing the mortality of clinical PCa (high-risk PCa). For clinical insignificant PCa (low-risk PCa) patients and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, biopsies should be avoided and disease progression should be monitored by using non-invasive biomarkers.

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Research Articles

by Xu Zhang, Jinku Zhang, Xing Kang, Xuejia Zhu, Yuhan Yan, Zhao Yang, Chong Li
180 Views, 53 PDF Downloads

It was an important challenge for bladder cancer diagnosis that to design a sandwich-type biosensor was used for ultrasensitive-detection of Bladder cancer cell. This inspire was from that ε-subunit of FoF1-ATPase could be regarded as a switch of the FoF1-ATPase biosensor and its application on the ultrasensitive-detection. There was only one ε subunit in one FoF1-ATPase and this character could be used to design a real single antibody sandwich-type biosensor. Due to ε-subunit of FoF1-ATPase as an intra-molecular rotation switch in the transition inter-changeable motion, it was found that ε-subunits can be interchanged between “rotor” and “stator” and remained its different activation at each status. Furthermore, Tip-chip device fabrication, a method that combined both double antibody sandwich immunoassay and intra-rotation switch of ε subunit FoF1-ATPase, role “rotor” and ‘stator’ a signal amplification at space scale, and time scale accumulation, was a powerful method. There were two stats of the rotation switch model, one was the switch close state when the γ and ε subunits of FoF1-ATPase bound as one complex, and the other was the switch open state when the γε complex divided, the intra-molecular rotation coupling model based on the “binding change mechanism”.

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Research Articles

by Xing Kang, Xu Zhang, Xuejia Zhu, Yuhan Yan, Chong Li
101 Views, 88 PDF Downloads

Autophagy is an important element in tumor progression. The clinical and commercial success of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for cancer has emerged as the fastest growing therapy. Prostate cancer is well appropriately suited for antibody therapy. PC322 is our newly prepared prostate cancer monoclonal antibody. In our current study, we described the impacts of PC322 on autophagy and biological behaviors in vitro and explored the possible mechanism of PC322 in prostate cancer cell autophagy. Role of PC322 on autophagy of LNCaP and C4-2 cells was observed with fluorescence microscopy, western blotting, and flow cytometry. Further, the function of PC322 on biological behaviors of prostate cancer cells was detected by CCK-8 kit, Hoechst 33342, wound healing assay and cell adhesion assay. Finally, we found that Autophagy-related genes3 (ATG3) was up-regulated with stimulation of Rapamycin (RAPA), while PC322 inhibited ATG3 expression. In summary, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the new monoclonal antibody PC322 inhibit cell autophagy, proliferation, and metastasis of LNCaP and C4-2 cells, and promote their apoptosis. PC322 reduces ATG3 expression.  Thereby suppresses the formation of autophagosomes by inhibiting LC3-I converting to LC3-II.

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Research Articles

by Frederick N. Bebe, Shasa Hu, Tony L Brown, Orien L Tulp
219 Views, 71 PDF Downloads

Differences in genetic profiles and environmental exposure may impact on the prognostic factors of metastatic melanoma with major implications on survival of minorities with advanced stage disease at presentation. This study determines the impact of stage at diagnosis, tumor location, grade and histologic type on overall survival time distribution among non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanic Whites and African Americans in Florida. A dataset of 80,349 Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans (AA) and Hispanics Whites (HW) stage III and IV metastatic melanoma patients at presentation was obtained from Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS). Measures related to impact of stage at diagnosis, anatomic/primary site or tumor location, grade and histologic type on overall survival time distribution across racial groups are reported. Data were analyzed using SAS. Mean time univariate and multivariate survival statistics across races were analyzed by Kaplan-Meir Method and the nonparametric Log Rank Tests were used to test homogeneity of survival curves. Significant differences in survival time are reported among the races in primary sites, histology and stage at diagnosis, but not in terms of tumor grade; survival curve distributions were still significantly different even when adjustments were made for age, nodes, lymphatic invasion and tumor size.

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Research Articles

by Zhao Yang, Haifeng Wang, Suhang Bai, Zongyi Shen, Bo Zhong, Qiuyun Yan, Dongxiao Cheng, Wei Zhang, Jian Zhuang, Lingzhi Wang, Xinlu Yu, Fuhan Zhang, Ruonan Gao, Yuhan Yan, Changyuan Yu, Chong Li
114 Views, 98 PDF Downloads

Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urologic neoplasms with a high rate of recurrence. The development of BC is a complex process, resulting from somke, drugs or bladder inflammation. However, the uinderlying mechanisms of BC tumorigenesis remained unclear. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of three paired para-tumor and tumor tissuses from BC patients. Compared with para-tumor tissuses, BC tissues displayed 1136 upregulated and 1199 downregualted lncRNAs, and 1347 upregulated and 953 downregualted genes. Additionally, the common upregulated genes were mainly enriched in SNARE interactions, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism and antigen processing pathways. The common downregulated genes were mainly focused amino acid metabolism and drug meabolism signalings. More importantly, cytokine related genes were highly expressed in BC, which suggest that the dysregulation of immunoregulatory process and amino acid metabolism played a crucial role in the oncogenesis of BC.

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